Frequently asked questions (FAQ)

Frequently asked questions about Second Generation GcMAF by Saisei Mirai.

General GcMAF questions

What are macrophages?

Macrophages (Greek: big eaters) are cells originating from monocytes, a type of white blood cell found in the body. Macrophages function in both non-specific defense (innate immunity) as well as help initiate specific defense mechanisms (adaptive immunity) of vertebrate animals.

Their role is to phagocytize (engulf and then digest) cellular debris and pathogens, either as stationary or as mobile cells. They also stimulate lymphocytes and other immune cells to respond to pathogens. They are specialized phagocytic cells that attack foreign substances, infectious microbes and cancer cells through destruction and ingestion.

A macrophage of a mouse stretching its “arms” (pseudopodia) to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens.

What is GcMAF?

GcMAF (Gc Protein derived Macrophage Activating Factor) occurs naturally in our bodies and instructs macrophages to destroy cancerous cells and foreign invaders by activating them.

Where are macrophages found in the body?

Macrophages and other phagocytes are found in the following locations in the body:

Main location Types of phagocytes
Skin * macrophages, resident Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, mast cells
Gut and intestinal Peyer’s patches * macrophages
Lungs * macrophages, monocytes, mast cells, dendritic cells
Blood neutrophils, monocytes
Bone marrow macrophages, monocytes, sinusoidal cells, lining cells
Connective tissue macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, histiocytes
Lymphoid tissue macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells
Spleen macrophages, monocytes, sinusoidal cells
Thymus macrophages, monocytes

* These locations offer the best sites for GcMAF administration. The skin by subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM) injection, the gut by oral administration and the lungs by inhalation using a nebulizer (such as Omron NE-U22V Portable Nebulizer).

Who is Saisei Mirai?

Saisei Mirai is a medical organisation in Osaka, Japan with the purpose of treating patients and developing and producing therapies, in particular immunotherapies such as GcMAF.

We work with other clinics and doctors both here and in Japan, as well as with various universities conducting clinical trials and doing research & development.

Second Generation GcMAF

How is GcMAF tested for activity?

Our GcMAF is tested for macrophage phagocytic activity using mouse macrophages and sheep red blood cells at the University of Tokushima, Japan.

The red blood cells are opsonized which marks them for ingestion and destruction by activated macrophages. Under the microscope this can be seen as purple areas in the clear cells. From this we calculate the Phagocytosis (ingestion) Index (PI).

See also Tests of Second Generation GcMAF for more details.

How is this new GcMAF different from previous GcMAF preparations?

Second Generation GcMAF is made using a new and improved 2nd generation method of Gc-MAF production which is 10-20 times more concentrated and is more active and stable than other GcMAF that is currently available.

Importantly, this much higher concentration GcMAF has been clinically demonstrated to be largely free of any side effects in the great majority of patients and is much more stable because it is resistant to oxidation.

First Generation GcMAF vs Saisei Mirai Second Generation GcMAF concentration

How long have you been producing Second Generation GcMAF?

Saisei Mirai has been producing our Patented Second Generation GcMAF since 2011 and our doctors have treated over 1000 patients in our Saisei Mirai group of clinics in Japan.

How stable is Second Generation GcMAF?

Second Generation GcMAF is stable for a minimum of 2 weeks at room temperature. See our Stability of GcMAF in Serum (PDF) report produced by Tokushima University.

We completed a longer stability experiment which found that Second Generation GcMAF is stable for 4 weeks at room temperature without loss in macrophage activation activity so the GcMAF remains highly potent.

We estimate from our experiments that our GcMAF remains highly active without loss in activity for at least 1 month at room temperature. Refrigerated there is no loss in activity for over 1 year.

What exactly is Second Generation GcMAF?

High Dose Second Generation Gc-MAF is produced using our new Patent Pending process which was developed here in Japan by Saisei Mirai in collaboration with Dr Hitoshi Hori and Dr Yoshihiro Uto at the University of Tokushima who have been studying GcMAF for over 20 years.

Studies on GcMAF began at the University of Tokushima in 1992, after they were introduced to Dr Nobuto Yamamoto’s work and a collaboration began.

What other immunotherapies do you produce?

In addition to GcMAF we produce NK cells (which we call Hyper T/NK Cell Therapy), lymphocytes and dendritic cells (DC).

We are continuously researching and developing new immunotherapies for patients in collaboration with various universities in Japan.

Where do you produce Second Generation GcMAF?

We produce GcMAF in our own Saisei Mirai Cell Processing Center (CPC) in Osaka, Japan.

Oral GcMAF

How is Oral GcMAF different from Second Generation GcMAF?

Oral GcMAF is produced in a similar way to Second Generation GcMAF but uses milk protein instead of serum. It is administered orally and sublingually.

See GcMAF Therapy for more details below.

How long does Oral GcMAF remain active?

Oral GcMAF is stable with high macrophage phagocytic activity for at least 1 year.
Long-term stability testing is currently being conducted.
To maintain maximum long-term activity we recommend Oral MAF be stored refrigerated.

Is Oral GcMAF a replacement for Second Generation Gc-MAF?

For most serious diseases we recommend a combination of Oral GcMAF and GcMAF injections.
Because the site of administration is different so too is the area of macrophage activation and the effect.

What are the commonly observed clinical effects of Oral GcMAF?

We have observed a number of common clinical effects from Oral GcMAF, such as:

  • Improved sleep, more energy; reduced fatigue
  • Improved digestion, reduced nocturnal urination
  • Improved hair regrowth and reduced hair loss due to natural ageing
  • Improved skin condition & smoothness
  • Improved control or curing of infectious diseases such as virus, bacteria and other pathogens
  • Reduced allergy symptoms, pollinosis and atopy
What is Oral GcMAF?

Oral GcMAF is our 3rd Generation of GcMAF and is produced from milk proteins by Saisei Mirai which was developed in collaboration with Tokushima University.

Where is Oral GcMAF produced?

Oral GcMAF is produced in GMP facilities in Japan.

Who can take Oral GcMAF?

Anyone can take Oral GcMAF to stay healthy and fight off disease.

GcMAF Therapy

Are there any side effects with GcMAF?

Second Generation GcMAF has been clinically demonstrated to be largely free of any side effects in the great majority of patients.
Only low grade fever or eczema has been observed in only about 1 out of 100 patients using Second Generation GcMAF, but these were short-term effects that are significantly less than occur with most other immunotherapies.
In small numbers of patients local injection site skin reactions occur which can be easily treated with a local non-steroidal anti-inflammatory patch.

Are there any supplements I need to take with GcMAF?

GcMAF is usually combination with about 5,000 IU vitamin D3 daily. Blood levels of vitamin D are often low in many kinds of diseases, such as cancer, HIV AIDS, etc.
Normal vitamin D levels are necessary in order for GcMAF to work fully.
Ask to have your blood 25 hydroxy-vitamin D as well as calcium levels tested.
If blood calcium levels become elevated, the dose of vitamin D3 may need to be reduced to achieve optimal balance.

Can GcMAF be used with other conventional therapies?

Generally, yes. GcMAF can be safely used with a wide variety of other standard treatments and drugs to improve their effect. We refer to this as multimodality integrative medicine. Some therapies for cancer such as chemotherapy will reduce immune activity which will have some impact on GcMAF, however chemotherapy effectiveness can be increased in combination with GcMAF. Radiation for cancer has less negative impact on the immune system and the cancer killing effects helps macrophages to target the tumors and destroy it.

In combination with anti-cancer drugs and radiation therapy (radiotherapy) is possible. For maximum effect and benefit from GcMAF, administer a few days apart from chemotherapy. Radiation therapy does not have significant effects on Gc-MAF, so both can be used together at any time. In our clinical experience we have observed significant cancer killing effects from GcMAF combined with palliative radiotherapy in patients who have had significant prior treatment with chemotherapy. See our Case Reports for more details on this multimodality integrative treatment.

How is GcMAF administered?

GcMAF administration is typically carried out through subcutaneous (SC) or intramuscular (IM) injections, with a recommended frequency of 2-3 times per week, as directed by the attending physician.  The preferred needle size for this procedure is either Size 26G x 1/2″ (0.45 x 13 mm) or Size 27G, along with a 2.5 ml or 1 ml syringe, which should be single-use and sterile disposable.  It’s important to highlight that the larger 2.5 ml syringe is often preferred because it reduces the distance the plunger needs to be pushed during the injection, thus improving user-friendliness.  In some cases, diabetes needles may also suffice for the administration of GcMAF, although these feature finer needles. Patients should always follow their healthcare provider’s recommendations and guidance regarding the specific administration method and equipment.

Treatment at our clinics often involves intratumoral (IT) injections, although intramuscular (IM) and subcutaneous (SC) injections are the prevailing methods of administration for the majority of our patients. It is imperative to employ a rigorous aseptic technique, which includes the use of pharmaceutical ethanol (ethyl alcohol) for swabbing the vial tops prior to needle insertion when utilizing these vials.


Alternative Methods of Administration:


Oral Administration of Oral MAF via Enteric Capsules

Saisei Mirai’s Oral MAF encapsulated in an enteric form offers an alternative method of administration specifically targeted at the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT).

When Oral MAF is ingested orally, enclosed within an enteric capsule designed to withstand the acidic environment of the stomach, it effectively traverses the digestive system and ultimately engages macrophages within the Peyer’s Patches located in the Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT). It is worth noting that the gut-associated lymphoid tissue represents a substantial component, accounting for approximately 70% of the body’s immune system.

For optimal results, oral administration is recommended on an empty stomach, either in the morning, before bedtime, or approximately 30 minutes before meals. This scheduling allows for swift passage of the enteric capsule through the stomach, facilitating the targeted delivery of Oral MAF to the gut.


Macrophages are prominently present within the Peyer’s patches of the intestinal tract.

Oral Administration of MAF Products for Enhanced Macrophage Activation

The oral administration of MAF (Macrophage Activation Factor) products, such as Oral MAF powder and MAF candies, presents a unique approach to harnessing the immune-boosting potential within the lymphoid tissue of the mouth and throat. This tissue is rich in macrophages, immune cells that play a pivotal role in defending the body against infections and foreign agents.

When we employ the use of Oral MAF powder and Oral MAF Capsules (by opening the capsules), the macrophages within the mouth and throat can be effectively activated.  This activation is achieved by allowing the powder to rest in the mouth for a period of 15-20 minutes or longer.  Alternatively, macrophage activation can also be stimulated by consuming MAF candies.

While there is the possibility of sublingual absorption of some GcMAF through the blood vessels in the mouth, the primary method of activation is believed to occur within the lymphoid tissue of the throat. This lymphoid tissue is a vital component of the immune system, crucial for mounting immune responses and safeguarding the body against infections and foreign invaders.

This method of administration holds particular promise for individuals with deficiencies in Immunoglobulin A (IgA) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM), as it offers a targeted approach to bolstering their immune defenses. By leveraging the lymphoid tissue’s innate capacity for macrophage activation, Oral MAF products can contribute to improving immune function and overall health.

Lymphoid tissue of the mouth
Inhalation via Nebulization:

Another viable option for GcMAF administration involves utilizing a nebulizer to stimulate macrophages within the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) of the lungs. This approach entails the use of specialized devices like the Omron NE-U22 Portable Nebulizer. It is especially advantageous for lung-related disorders, as local administration can yield more pronounced therapeutic effects.


Omron NE-U22 Portable Nebuliser for administration in the lungs to activate macrophages in the Bronchus-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (BALT) of the lungs.
How long should GcMAF therapy be continued?

One course of High Dose GcMAF is usually expected to be 48 doses for 6 months. Additional courses may be required depending on stage and type of disease, and based on disease symptoms, pathology and progress of improvement. Treatment with GcMAF should be continued as long as necessary while disease is present. Long term maintenance doses of GcMAF may be required depending on the type of disease. Maintenance doses are usually once a week or every 2 weeks administration.

As a general note, macrophage activation is always necessary for the effective functioning of the immune system to stay well and disease-free. GcMAF therapy should continue while there is disease present and for a period after to reduce the chance of recurrence for prevention.

Is Nagalase testing necessary for GcMAF therapy?

Nagalase testing is not required for GcMAF therapy because macrophage activation is always necessary for the effective functioning of the immune system to destroy cancer cells, bacteria and viruses. GcMAF therapy should continue while there is disease present, regardless of Nagalase status.

What diseases can benefit from GcMAF therapy?

GcMAF and/or oral MAF immunotherapy are recommended for the management of conditions characterized by immune dysfunction or compromised immune systems, including but not limited to:

Cancer Autoimmune diseases Respiratory tract infections
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) Herpes Simplex virus (HSV) Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV)
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Multiple sclerosis (MS) Cystitis
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Urinary tract infection (UTI)
Tuberculosis Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) Endometriosis
Lupus (Systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE) Mycobacteria infections Parkinson’s disease
Pneumonia infection Fibromyalgia Norovirus
Malaria Warts caused by viral infection Herpes simplex virus (HSV)
Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) Influenza virus (flu) Chicken pox (varicella zoster virus)
Psoriasis Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease
What is the usual dose of GcMAF therapy?

Cancer: For Second Generation GcMAF therapy we recommend 0.5 ml High Dose GcMAF (1500 ng/0.5 ml) 2-3 times a week in an integrative approach to treating cancer.

  • More frequent dosing (daily or every second day) may be safely used with more advanced stage of disease, or initially in the treatment course.
  • GcMAF may also be administered by intravenous (IV) injection, 0.5-1.0 ml 2-3 times per week in 20 ml or more saline, if deemed necessary, such as for advanced cases.
  • We recommend IV GcMAF in addition to the usual IM/SC injections every week. These can be done on alternate days.

Other diseases (such as Autism, CFS, ME, Lyme disease): We recommend 0.25 ml High Dose GcMAF (1500 ng/0.5 ml) 2-3 times a week. Initial doses can start at 0.1 ml in the 1st week, 0.2 ml in the 2nd week, and 0.25 ml or 0.3 ml in the 3rd week. A higher dose of 0.5 ml 2-3 times per week may be required depending on the initial response. See our Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) page for more details on Autism.

What should I avoid while using GcMAF?

GcMAF can be safely used with a wide variety of drugs and other treatments.

What tests should be done during GcMAF therapy?

We recommend checking tumor markers and regular MRI, PET and CT scans.

Monocyte Count: A patients monocyte count will generally rise in the early stages of GcMAF treatment and indicates a response to GcMAF.

Increase in Monocyte percentage with High Dose GcMAF therapy

Increase in Monocyte number with High Dose GcMAF therapy

  • Example of monocyte count of Stage 4 Breast Cancer patient taking 0.5 ml High Dose GcMAF (1500 ng/0.5 ml) twice weekly by intramuscular injection during cancer treatment at Saisei Mirai clinics in Japan.

Ordering and Shipping

How can I pay for Third Generation GcMAF therapy?

If you wish to order Second/Third Generation GcMAF Therapy made by Saisei Mirai, please click here.

How is GcMAF packaged for shipping?

The GcMAF is packaged in an insulated shipping box with ice packs to keep the temperature stable during shipping. Second Generation GcMAF activity does not decrease during shipping even at room temperature and temperatures as high as 40 °C (140 °F). Please refer to our Stability of GcMAF experiment report.

How long does it take for my package to arrive?

It usually takes 3-6 days to ship to the US, Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Some delays can occur for various reasons, but this will not affect the stability of Second Generation GcMAF. Please refer to our Stability of GcMAF experiment report.

How much does shipping and handling cost?

Shipping and handling cost 9,000 yen or more worldwide. Prices include shipping and handling costs. Shipping can be calculated for other couriers such as Fedex or EMS.

Import duties, taxes and charges are not included in the item price or shipping charges. These charges are the buyer’s responsibility. Please check with your country’s customs office.

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