The hypothesis: Based on the aforementioned findings and on documented analogies between SARS-CoV-2 and HIV, we hypothesized that the reduced conversion activity of the Gc protein (human group-specific component (Gc)) into the macrophage activating factor (MAF) could have a key role in the dysregulate immune response induced by SARS-CoV-2, just like for HIV infected patients. If this hypothesis is correct, it might help to set a valid strategy of immunotherapy also based on an off-label use of GcMAF in critically ill COVID-19 patients.
Conclusion: According to the provided literature overview, we firmly believe that GcMAF deserves be tested as immune-therapeutic to increase macrophages functionality for earlier SARS-CoV-2 viral control, protection against COVID-19 progression by limiting epithelial damage, control local inflammation and prevent from the hyperinflammatory immune response. For this purpose, we planned a Phase-II interventional clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness and safety of Oral immunotherapy with Third Generation GcMAF in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (COral-MAF1 Trial) at the “Ospedale del Mare” Hospital, Naples, Italy.
About the Sonodynamic and Photodynamic Therapy (3 papers)
Conference presentation - 9th International Congress for Medical Laser Applications, Germany
Conference presentation - The 17th Annual Meeting of The Society of Biotherapeutic Approaches, Fukuoka University
Our research group
- Professor Hitoshi Hori, Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan.
- Associate professor, Yoshihiro Uto, Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima, Tokushima, Japan.
- Professor Norihiro Sakamoto, National University Hospital, Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.
- Professor Yoshinori Marunaka, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan.
- Professor Yoshito Nishikata, Faculty of Science, Konan University, Kobe, Japan.
- Kentaro Kubo, PhD., Saisei Mirai Cell Processing Center, Osaka, Japan.